A tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) operates by using various sensors and a central control unit to monitor the air pressure in each tire of a vehicle. Here is a basic overview of how it works:
- Sensors: Each tire is equipped with a sensor that is responsible for measuring the air pressure within the tire. Most modern TPMS sensors are wireless and use a battery for power.
- Sensor Data: The TPMS sensors continuously measure the tire pressure and transmit this data wirelessly to the central control unit. The sensors may also transmit other information like tire temperature and battery status.
- Central Control Unit: The central control unit receives the data from the TPMS sensors and processes it. It typically includes a microprocessor and memory to store the sensor data.
- Alert System: The control unit analyzes the tire pressure data to determine if any tire has low or high pressure. If the pressure in any tire is outside the specified range, the system triggers an alert. This alert is usually displayed on the instrument cluster of the vehicle or may have a separate warning light.
- Driver Notification: The driver is informed about the low or high tire pressure through the alert system (warning light or display on the instrument cluster). Some advanced TPMS systems may also provide audible alerts or messages on the vehicle's infotainment system.
- Tire Pressure Display: Many vehicles equipped with TPMS allow the driver to check the individual tire pressure values through a display on the instrument cluster or infotainment system. This provides detailed information about each tire's pressure to help the driver maintain proper inflation.
It is important to note that TPMS is primarily a warning system and does not actively adjust or control the tire pressure. It helps drivers identify and rectify any tire pressure issues promptly to ensure safe driving conditions and optimal tire performance.